You may not know a lobbyist, you may not have seen them on television, or read their views in a newspaper. They do exist yet they tend to operate in the shadows for organizations and individuals to influence political decisions.
Lobbyists play a role in what we hear from the media and the issues that we encounter every day. This may be in new legislation that the country has to abide by or amending existing laws and regulations.
In this guide, we will look at what is a lobbyist, how a lobbyist operates, the industries that see the most lobbying, and how to become a lobbyist.
What Is A Lobbyist?
A lobbyist is known as a professional advocate who operates to influence and amend political decisions involving legislation. That may sound underhand but they operate for the benefit of an individual, a group of individuals, or an organization.
Lobbyists cannot pay politicians to secure their vote on matters in their interest but they have methods of persuasion.
Lobbyists tend to have a deep knowledge and understanding of how the federal government operates. They can be policy experts, attorneys, or even former government officials.
A set of lobbyists may be more influential than the general public, even though every single American can petition the federal government. These lobbying firms and their lobbyists are usually sought out by organizations and individuals as they come with connections.
How A Lobbyist Operates
A lobbyist can only try to persuade and influence a politician to vote in certain ways when laws and regulations come up for debate. Their main method of persuasion is to provide information that a politician may not have had access to.
That includes polls, charts, graphs, and reports that indicate why the lobbyist has favorable interests. A lobbyist can also aid a politician in drafting legislation.
The influence of a lobbyist is backed by the federal government itself and even comes backed by legislation. Each state has its own definition of lobbying that comes with specific laws on how lobbyists operate.
However, on a grander scale, there is the Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995 which was then amended in 2007. To find out how a lobbyist is supposed to operate, read the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act.
Should a lobbyist qualify as one, or their activity qualifies for lobbying, then various regulations come into play. These include registration, gift restrictions, disclosures, and several prohibitions which fall under the definitions of how a lobbyist operates. The definition typically includes lobbying for individuals or organizations for compensation.
There are various states that have compensation thresholds meaning that an individual who acts as a lobbyist has to register once they have received a stated amount of compensation.
These states include the likes of New York, Texas, Wyoming, Minnesota, Michigan, Maryland, Hawaii, Indiana, Georgia, Arkansas, and Connecticut. Each of these states also has their own state definition for what constitutes a lobbyist or the act of lobbying.
The Industries That See The Most Lobbying
Certain industries see more lobbying than others and, perhaps, have more influenced areas of legislation. These include the pharmaceutical industry, business associations, insurance, and technology.
The oil and gas industries also have millions of dollars spent on lobbying, as do electric and utilities, television, movies, and music, as well as securities and investment.
How To Become A Lobbyist
Few individuals set out to become lobbyists, rather they change careers to become one. Most lobbyists have earned college degrees and have relevant experience and knowledge to influence the federal government.
Those degrees could be in law, journalism, political science, public relations, or economics which would prove very useful.
In college, a potential lobbyist may get involved with an internship related to the federal government such as a congressional aide. They may work with a lobbying firm or in a government agency, in a public relations or law firm.
Another career shift may be from a legislator so they know how legislation is created and how to persuade politicians to change it. Even former politicians can become involved as they work on their years’ experience in government to help out their former friends who remain in office.
To gain the favor of politicians, a lobbyist must be able to mingle so previous connections are important. Networking is crucial and lobbyists can be employed simply for their perceived influence as there is no tangible hierarchy between lobbyists.
Once they have decided to become lobbyists, these individuals do not have to earn a license or gain a certification but they must be registered with their state and the federal government.
Billions of dollars are spent on lobbying every year with hundreds of thousands of dollars spent by lobbyists. Individuals and organizations spend millions of dollars to persuade the government to act in their favor.
You may not find out how influential a lobbyist is yet there are only around 12,000 of them who are registered as active in the United States. Each of them has their own interests and you may only see their influence when legislation is up for debate.
Frequently Asked Questions
What Is Lobbying?
Lobbying is known as the practice of promoting or opposing, influencing, or attempting to influence, legislation. This could be in the legislation’s introduction, defeat, or amendment before a legislative body.
The legislation could also be going through executive approval, veto, promulgation, or modification. Lobbying can also exist when regulations are being deleted yet does not include public testimony in front of a committee, regulatory body, or a legislative body.
Where Did The Term ‘Lobbyist’ Originate From?
The term actually comes from a physical location, specifically the anterooms or lobbies of political buildings. James Madison noted that bribery was constantly being involved in the lobbies of government buildings but that was stamped out.
Lobbyists remained but they were further controlled and had to declare the names of the companies they represented as well as any gifts sent to politicians.